Tuesday, June 30, 2020
The Golden Age of Greece is notorious for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These primitive performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos. Throughout Antigone, King Creon is a symbol for nomos, while Antigone stands on the side of physis. To portray these ideas, light and dark images are used as a recurring motif to reinforce the theme. Light is used to show something good that is happening, whereas dark is utilized to show show of something of which the gods disapprove. Following with tradition, this play uses light to portray what is right in the eyes of the chorus and darkness to reproach the other side. As the play is carried out, the chorus is constantly changing its opinions, first believing in the a ctions of Creon with respect to nomos, then unsure of what to believe, and finally seeing that Antigones actions are more consistent with the morality of the gods and the truths of physis. Light and darkness are used to support in an emotional way the action of whoever the chorus is siding with at these various stages of the play.It is clear that at the beginning of Antigone, the chorus favors the actions of Creon, or nomos. This is shown as Creons intentions and retribution towards Polyneices are justified by jovial words and imagery involving light. In the battle between Eteocles and Polyneices, although both leaders were killed, Eteocles army was the victor. To show that this was positive in the eyes of the gods, the first line of the Parodos in the Prologue refers to the battle as a blade of sun. The morning following the battle was then called a beautiful morning of victory. These are all positive feedback to the victory of Eteolces, and with the help of these light image s, it is easy to identify the chorus thoughts. Another praise to Creon is found in Ode I, where his law against burying Polyneices is referred to as clear intelligence. In this instance, clear is used in the sense that it is easily visible, or obvious, making the statement positive for Creon. Later, in Ode I, the gods again side with Creon, as they refer to his decisions in lines 4 to 5, Earth, holy and inexhaustible, is graven/With shining furrows where his plows have gone The gods are praising Creon; shining furrows where his plows have gone imply that he has left a good indent on matters that he has ruled on, in this case referring to the law against burying Polyneices. It is once again apparent that nomos is being favored by the chorus.As the middle of Antigone approaches, the chorus seems to be unsure of whom to favor, and is torn between physis and nomos. Because of this, references to light and dark motifs in scenes two and three are ironic, and sometimes even contradic tory. In lines 89 to 90 of Scene II, Creon claims, crimes kept in the dark/Cry for light. As Creon says this in regards to Antigone, this statement, ironically, could apply to him as well, as his recent actions and abuse of his power could also be considered a crime. This comment actually foreshadows Creons own fate. Another ironic instance is present in line 37 of Scene III, when Haimon says to Creon, You make things clear for me, and I obey you. Clear is an ambiguous word, used here to show how Haimon is unsure of whose side to favor. Like the chorus, he starts out favoring Creon, but later sides with Antigone. Another example of irony comes when Antigone is doomed for death. As the time comes for her to get locked up and killed, she is feeling dejected and sad, and is looking for pity. Yet, she comes to realize that fate had brought her to this point, and it was not her fault, but was inherited by her from her father, Oedipus, and his family. Figuring this out, because Antigone has fulfilled her fate and realizes that she has not done anything wrong, she becomes spiritually immortal. She has succeeded in doing what she thought was right, (burying her brother), and she knows that the gods are on her side. This realization helps her to face her death. Yet, in line 7 of Scene IV, she continues speaking as if she has not figured this out. She says good-bye to the sun that shines no longer. This continues through line 50 of Scene IV where she declares, the very light of sun is cold to me. These statements imply that Antigone will die both physically and spiritually, although both she and the reader knows that this is not what will happen.The final turn comes in the last two scenes of Antigone, when Creon finally realizes that he is in the wrong. He discovers that physis truly does supersede nomos, and, although he attempts to make amends, he is too late. Ode IV introduces this fact that the chorus has changed its mind, and Antigones actions wit h the idea of physis are presiding over Creons values with regards to nomos. It says, Zeus in a rain of gold poured love upon [Antigone]. The word gold is a reference to light and contains positive connotations. This change in thought is ascertained in Scene V, when Teiresias tells Creon of his recent omen regarding Creon: I began the rites of burnt offering at the altar,But instead of bright flame,the entrails dissolved in gray smoke,And no blaze!Creons omen states that the bright flame, his previous time of being favored by the gods, also a light reference which hold positive connotations, has worn out. This is a symbol of Creons pride, law, and power, which was abused , and has resulted in gray smoke, a gloomy image and a reference to dark. This shows that Creons intentions are now not favored by the gods, as the gods saw that Creons pride with connection to nomos was too high, and images referring to him are now dark and dismal. The play ends as the gods have turned their shoulder on Creon, and have made their final decision that Antigone is ultimately in the right.Because the sole purpose of Antigone is to get a moral point across, the parallels between light and dark and physis and nomos are associated together, and used metaphorically to add diversity and imagery to an otherwise redundant script. In the first scenes, these light and dark images show the reign of Creon. These are followed by the indistinct and ironic middle scenes, and end with the gods choosing Antigones actions over Creons, leaving Creon spiritually dead and paying for his poor choices and conduct. These are very effective techniques, which allow Sophocles to more fully develop his play, and give it a more emotional edge.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Introduction How to measure social culture and organizational culture of one country is an important issue (Miroshnik, 2002). Culture can be defined as the way of life of the group of people, which includes beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society, and enables people to communicate with others, provides the knowledge and skill necessary, and anticipates how others in society are likely to respond for the actions (Miroshnik, 2002). In other hand, managers frequently view culture as the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another and the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influence a groupsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For examples, Indonesians avoid admitting lack of knowledge, inability to complete something, or deny something that it is actually true in order to show dignity. Indonesians are polite people. Upon meeting and leaving, it is usual to shake hands with both men and women. The other example is Indonesians avoid using left hand when offering something to others, because it is regarded as the unclean hand. It is also rude to point someone with a finger (Makmur, 2002). The fact is Indonesian cultural values do not adapt or include some of the elements in the western societies. Singapore Country profile Singapore is located in Southeast Asia between Malaysia and Indonesia. Singapore was part of Malaysia in 1963-1965. The government of Malaysia decided to separate from Singapore in order to avoid further violence between Chinese dominated Singaporean and Malay Muslim communities. Through the 1990s, Singapore experienced sustained economic growth along with Four Tigers which are Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. The economy depends heavily on export trade, particularly on manufacturing and electronics sector. Singapores population was reported by the government at 4,351,400 in July 2005, and the ethnic Chinese make up 76.8 percent of the population. Malay is the national language and one of the four official languages, along with Chinese, Tamil, and English,Show MoreRelatedA New Team Of Global Employees1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstated countries. This study will look at culture evaluation instruments and how they will be useful to measure the business culture and to find cultural ho les associated with this team. There will be an explanation of how my style of leadership, and techniques will be persuaded by the social ethnicity and multiplicity of the team. There will be an explanation of how the social ethnicity of the team will likely persuade job outcomes and efficiency of the team. There will be an explanation of how theRead MoreDiversity Management Has Increased Improve Competitiveness Within The Business World1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdiversity and the greatest difference is how they approach diversity based on their culture. In Korea, by example, gender is considered an important diversity characteristic when in most western countries race and ethnicity is more accepted as diverse compared to gender which is more used when considering discrimination. Studies have shown positive effect of diversity management in the US but because it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t such a concern in homogeneous countries or countries that are uniform in structure there areRead MoreCross- Cultural Work Environments750 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNaeja Silar January 14, 2012 Leadership and Organizational Behavior Unit 1 Assignment Organizational Theory: Cross-Cultural Work Environments I will be researching a theory on the analysis of cross-cultural management style and structure. In researching this theory, it will help managers in a multinational company, or work environment, interact with employees of a diverse background. In understanding, and getting a better idea of how cultures interact in workplace environments, the managerRead MoreRisky Business: Consent Safety and Fire Fighting Culture. Essay670 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRisky Business: Consent Safety and fire fighting Culture. This case study introduces us to the risk, safety measures, and issues involved in fire fighting. The title of the case study is Risky Business: Consent Safety and fire fighting Culture. The case discusses the Bay City fire fighting department which is known Ã¢â¬Å"as one of the most advanced in the countryÃ¢â¬ (2010). The case highlights the fact that though the department has one of the most highly trained fire fighters in its team, the chiefRead MoreAnalysis Of Geert Hofstede s Cultural Theory1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCulture influences our expectations of what is appropriate or inappropriate and also learned and reflects the values of a society. It frames our experiences and provides us with patterns of behavior, thinking, feeling, and interacting. In summary, culture affects every prospect of daily life - how we think and feel, how we learn and teach, or what we consider to be beautiful or cross-grained. However, most people are unaware of their own culture until they exper ience another. In fact, we don t regularlyRead MoreAnalysis Of Geert Hofstede s Cultural Theory1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCulture influences our expectations of what is appropriate or inappropriate and also learned and reflects the values of a society. It frames our experiences and provides us with patterns of behavior, thinking, feeling, and interacting. In summary, culture affects every prospect of daily life - how we think and feel, how we learn and teach, or what we consider to be beautiful or cross-grained. However, most people are unaware of their own culture until they experience another. In fact, we don t regularlyRead MoreHofstede And Globe ( Global Leadership And Organisation Behaviour Effectiveness1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganisation Behaviour Effectiveness) research on Culture and Leadership. Hofstede and GLOBE is similar, they both investigation the behaviour of organisations in different countries and across culture. But the way and research scope still quite differ ent. In this report we will summarized and reviewed the theoretical dimension of various culture and leadership. Include the deficiencies in HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s work which the GLOBE study sought to address. Introduction Culture is a common behavior of the human, representingRead MoreThe Chicago School Of Professional Psychology Essay1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmany countries around the world, employing millions, and directly or indirectly impacting the lives, cultures, economies, and many times the environments of many millions more. Social justice theory of ethics suggests that who is benefited is as important as how many are benefited (IIT, 2016). In the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Need for Ethical Leadership,Ã¢â¬ Butcher (1997) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"things that affect free enterprise affect the whole societyÃ¢â¬ (p. 86). Additionally, Aleksic (2013) wrote the article Ã¢â¬Å"How OrganizationsRead MoreDefinition Of Dimensions Of Culture998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDimensions of culture is an idea that expands over many professional and academic categories. Personally, this topic urges my curiosities cause of the career path I have chosen. I am on the path to becoming an Air Force Officer. This career possesses many different challenges and dealing with various dimensions of culture is a prominent aspect. Communication with various allied countries, respecting religious traditions, maintaining ethical values, recognizing religious and social customs are justRead MoreGlobal Leadership And Organizational Behavior Effectiveness1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness). The GLOBE research followed in Hofstede s footsteps yet also searched for additional dimensions (Cater, Lang Szabo, 2013, p. 446) as depicted and defined on Table II. In light of the GLOBE findings, earlier conceptualisations of culture have been reconsidered with respect to the impact of culture on leadership (Dickson et al., 2012 as cited in Cater et al., 2013, p. 447). GLOBE researchers introduced twnety one first-orderr Ã¢â ¬Å"primary
Positive Side Effects Students play sports for many different reasons (e.g. pay for college tuition, stay in shape, be social.) Although some reasons of playing are good there are many aspects of high school sports that students and parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend enough time thinking about (e.g. pros and cons of high school sports.) Being an athlete in high school teaches you many things (e.g. character building, socialization, sportsmanship, live a healthier lifestyle, college preparation, ect.) Along with positive aspects of being a student athlete in high school, there are also negative ones (e.g. injuries, lack of free time, pressure, not focusing on school.) When a student athlete competes against other teams, the opposing team could be better than theirs, so they need to be able to handle defeat. There are two different types of character values: social and moral. Social values are those that include loyalty, sacrifice, teamwork, and dedication. While moral values are honesty, justice, responsibility, and fair play. While student athletes are playing the game they love, they are learning both social and moral values of character building. All of those traits will be used after the student graduates from high school. When a student joins a team, they will spend countless hours with their teammates on and off the playing field. Teammates are with each other constantly (e.g. riding the bus to games, practicing, playing in games, after game dinners) and they all share in commonShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of Here s Why Suspensions Won Not Deter Ped Users Like Maria Sharapova934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaddresses an issue that lots of the college student will be interest in. In the article, the author, Zach claims that suspensions will not deter PED users like Maria Sharapova. Zach reasons that although the highest-paid female athlete Sharapova received a suspension of about a year because of her use of PED, she still owns some sponsorships and aids, and her net worth is about $125 million a year. SharapovaÃ¢â¬â¢ reputation might be untarnished because of her play to the public. Zach states that the behaviorsRead MoreApplying Sociological Theory Into Everyday Life1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe classroom into a real experience. I worked at the Ohio University Athletic Department, and was involved in student-athlete academic welfare. Ã When it was time to write my final research paper, I settled upon the topic of women in sports. Ã I wanted to analyze womenÃ¢â¬â¢s meaningful contributions and accomplishments within sports, their leadership roles in sports, and what the future of sports could potentially hold for them. I worked with female athletes and what I saw this semester inspired me to writeRead MoreEssay about Pushing Kids to the Limit1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPushing Kids to the Limit Children today seem to be involved in many activities outside of school. A number of children may play soccer, swim, play an instrument, and help out around the house while at the same time trying to succeed academically. In many cases, the vast number of sports played by these children is due to the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s encouragement, or enforcement. Some parents may enforce after school activities in order to keep their children away from the Ã¢â¬Å"evils of societyÃ¢â¬ : drugs, alcoholRead MoreVideo Game Effects On Childrens Development930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesVIDEO GAME EFFECTS ON CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT It is believed the average gamer usually ages 13 and up spends up to 6.3 hours a day playing video games. That is an alarming rate, which concerns both the public and scientist. Through out this paper three different articles will be analyzed and their view on the impact of video games on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and adolescents. The first article to be discussed is Ã¢â¬Å"Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and DepressionRead MoreNational Collegiate Athletic Association1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesuniversity presidents, athletic departments, sport commissioners, and coaches as well. When it comes to the world of sports, all sports, many topics come into debate when discussing the day to day issues facing athletes and their chosen careers. Many concerns with athletes are usually two sided and are black and white arguments without much gray area in between. Most of these issues with sport revolve around the athletes who play them. Such problems that sports spectators argue about are the leaguesRead MoreAthletes And Performance Enhancing Drugs1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesages are always looking for that extra edge to excel in their sport. Living in a world filled with competition, this could be a challenge for certain athletes who want to progress and get to the next level. Many athletes have a strong desire for recognition and fame. Unfortunately, that makes some athletes who are determined to win at any cost, motivated to experiment with illegal substances even knowing the consequences. Being in sports that require significant strength and endurance my whole lifeR ead MoreBenefits Of Gambling Among College Students1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGambling Among College Students Gambling is risking money or something of value on uncertain events driven by chance. Most people see gambling as just another form of fun. Gambling often becomes a sensitive issue for the gambler and their family. This is especially important to consider, since the practice of gambling among college students is constantly growing with the rise of internet-based gambling.Though gambling is legal in many states, it does not make it right for people to engage in suchRead MoreBasic Education And Physical Education Curriculum1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstandards help if they are integrated into the physical education curriculum? Both sides will be uncovered and reveal information relating to the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s stance, on whether they disagree or agree with standards being a crucial part of everyday curriculum. The reasons opposing standards in physical education curriculum are given a potential solution. Setting aside our personal preference as educators, students benefit much more f rom a curriculum because, it sets a Physical Education is taughtRead MoreDrug Testing Should Be Legal For Schools1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesany federal laws related to drug testing in schools, but two different Supreme Court rulings have granted schools the authority to conduct drug testing in certain circumstances. Ã¢â¬Å" In 1995, the Court ruled that it was legal for schools to randomly test student athletesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"in 2002, the ruling was expanded to include students who participate in a competitive extracurricular activity such as marching band or chess clubÃ¢â¬ .( Should Students Be Drug Tested At School, 2016). Since that time there has beenRead MoreThe Debate Over Public Prayer1338 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Public prayer is an issue that has been a topic for debate among many. The idea of intertwining religion with politics is something that, according to the United States Constitution, has been ruled decades ago as being inappropriate. However, prayer has shown to have very positive results when allowed to be conducted in a public manner. Prayer in school and work settings create a sense of morale and as a result allow individuals to have more motivation with the tasks at hand. Public prayer also
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Row Level Security/ Virtual Private Database Row level security is important in this application because data related to many different users are stored in the database. It would be wasteful to assign each student to their own database, hence the need of a centralized database , but we cannot give full access to the data by the student. Consider an instance where a student should only be able to view or modify the rows of data that matters specifically to him. We can achieve this through creating a row level security or virtual private database. VPD enables the developer to enforce security, directly on tables, views or synonyms. It provides row level access control beyond that of views, since it uses all the data manipulation languagesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦VPD can be implemented using stored procedures CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION specific_users ( p_schema IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL, p_object IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS BEGIN RETURN project_name = v( APP_USER ) ; END specific_users; / SQL INJECTION The user can influence the SQL code, this is usually as a result of the developer not properly using the right code. The user with some knowledge of SQL will like to put in some values in the form to try and query a database, this might select information from APEX application item, find items, and learn about the application and then can hack the app easily, or execute any DDL command that will alter the database objects. Situation where the SQL statement is concatenated by substitution strings and static portion of the query, such that the user provides the values. A section of PL/SQL that is susceptible to SQL injection l_sql := SELECT *FROM project WHERE project_name = ||p_project_name|| ; When a user enters any valid name in the database report, but not the right data, the database only ensures that the statement is syntactically correct , and parses it. Some records can be obtained instead of the required one. Solution to this attack is to use a bind variable, these are evaluated during the bind phase of processing a query, the SQL will be
Samuel Moore Walton was conceived in Oklahoma on March 29th 1918. His dad was utilized differently as a homestead advance appraiser, a land sales representative and protection businessperson. Walton and his family moved from many different small towns in Missouri as his dad sought after work. When they at long last settled in Columbia, Missouri, in 1933, Walton supported the family pay by tackling a few jobs. Notwithstanding his work duties Walton discovered time to go to class. As a teen, Sam Walton was portrayed by his schoolmates as the most flexible student in high school. Realizing that anything was conceivable in America, the adaptable young man carried on with his life taking into account the order that exclusive standards were the way to everything. As a star quarterback at Hickman High School, an Eagle Scout, and the beneficiary of a degree in economics from the University of Missouri, Sam Walton was a puzzle. Hitched 49 years to the same lady, and a father of four, this vig orous huntsman and recreational devotee, held an unassuming picture supporting his red Ford F150 pickup (vintage 1979) as his method of transportation to work. Be that as it may, as a man of business, Walton, known as Mr. Sam, was an eccentric yet vital retail pioneer. Mr. Sam was imaginative, unequivocal, and discerning. Walton accepted among different qualities that to be effective in business one must swim upstream. He was splendid enough and sufficiently persevering to pick up a spot at theShow MoreRelatedThere are famous thinkers that have little in common with what makes them strive to achievement1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescreative ideas in which create a secure foundation for the creative process. Several of these ideas circle around finding a solution to a problem, or changing the way people think about upcoming issues. There are two particular famous thinkers: Sam Walton and Bill Gates., both of these men were able to use the creative process to alter the way people observe d the issues of the day. They each made precise contributions to society during difficult times. Bill Gates (William Henry Gates III) WilliamRead MoreLeadership Assignment1811 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageschanged and greatly devoted to the development of mankind. In this paper, I will choose Martin Luther King Jr and Sam Walton as the two examples to analyze, compare and contrast, in order to have a more thorough and deep understanding of their leadership styles and, therefore, present my opinion on choosing the more effective leader. This paper will include a short summary of typical life events of the two leaders and analysis of some similarities and differences between them. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR (1929-1968) Read MoreProfile of an Entrepreneur Essay2576 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesEarly Years Samuel Moore Walton was born on March 29, 1918 to Thomas Gibson and Nancy Lee Walton near Kingfisher, Oklahoma. In Oklahoma, he lived and worked on his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s farm. He grew up during the depression and knew the meaning of hard work and dedication. He started selling magazine subscriptions by the age of only eight years old to help with money because it was lacking on the farm making it hard to feed their family. The Waltons decided that the farm was not profitable enough to raiseRead MoreSam Walton1769 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSam Walton: Entrepreneurial Genius and Creator of Wal-Mart Dedication, risk-taking, empire-building, and world shaking; words that describe a man that changed this world. This man is not any ordinary man, but a man of vision and hope; a man that started from nothing, and if alive today would be worth more then Bill Gates. Sam Walton, creator and founder of Wal-Mart Incorporations, shaped this world. Ã¢â¬Å"From his birth on March 29, 1918 in Kingfisher, Oklahoma to his death in April 6, 1992 atRead MoreSam Walton: a Biography3047 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesSam Walton: A Biography America s richest man, Sam Walton, was not always rich. Growing up during the depression, he struggled to help his family then, not knowing he would one day own a multi-billion dollar business, and then struggle to help the poorest of America becoming one of the top philanthropists in the United States. Also seen as a great leader, not everyone agrees on the greatness of the man who laid the foundation of some of the most significant management concepts used today inRead MoreHistory of WalMart: Recognition and Reward of Employees2092 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin 1960, but with the chain of variety stores owned by Sam Walton in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Samuel Moore Walton is the founder of the Wal-Mart store chain. In regards to Wal-Mart, its first store started in 1962 when Sam and his wife, Helen, decided to invest their money in the first store. Their investment made up 95% of the money that was necessary to open the first Wal-Mart in Rogers, Arkansas. While Kmart was expanding its stores i n the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, Sam only had the money to build 15 more stores at that timeRead MoreRole of Entrepreneurship and Innovation2686 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesindirectly. Wal-Mart Stores is a relevant example for understanding the relationship between Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Development, the company which is ranked no. 18 in the Forbes List of Ã¢â¬Å"Global 2000 Leading Companies 2011Ã¢â¬ . Samuel Moore Walton is one of the most successful entrepreneurs who made it possible in less than half a century. He founded the Company in 1962 when he opened the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first discount store in Rogers, Arkansas, USA after watching a market gap of Discount storesRead MoreWal Mart Analysis8708 Words Ã |Ã 35 PagesWal-Mart and the United States and Global Economy Azusa Pacific University Table of Contents History of Sam Walton 3 Background of Wal-Mart 5 Management Philosophy 9 Use of Information Technology as a Competitive Weapon 10 Purchasing Power 12 Supply Chain and Inventory Management 14 Supply Chain and Distribution 14 Inventory Management 18 Expanded Operation in Groceries 21 Labor Unions and Wal-Mart 22 Role of the LargestRead MoreSolution Manual, Test Bank and Instructor Manuals34836 Words Ã |Ã 140 PagesGeorge S. Kriz, Gary M. Lampman, Randall G. Engel (IM) A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Brief Edition, Volume I, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Volume II Since 1865, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik A Small Scale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques, 3rd Edition _Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S. KrizRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers
Nazisme Essay ?NTRODUCT?ONLe nazisme est un bon exemple de r?gime totalitaire. De point de vue de sa naissance et de sa mont?e, le nazisme nous d?montre bien comment un r?gime totalitaire peut sinstaurer. La mont?e du nazisme; cest ? dire une p?riode commen?ant par la fin de la premi?re guerre mondiale (1918) jusqu? lobtention du pouvoir par le Parti Nazi (NSDAP: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) et la fondation de la 3e Reich (1931) sera pr?sent?e afin de pouvoir exprimer les causes de linstauration dun r?gime totalitaire en Allemagne. Comment, une pens?e politique si extr?me a pu obtenir le pouvoir, surtout par les moyens l?gaux? Quels sont les cl?s de leur r?ussites; comment le peuple allemand lont tol?r? et support Pourquoi Hitler a r?ussi? Nous allons essayer de r?pondre ? ces questions dans les lignes suivantes avec un plan chronologique. I-La R?publique et La Constitution de WeimarA) La situation de lAllemagne apr?s la Premi?re Guerre MondialeLa Monarchie Allemande navait plus une autorit? et une l?gitimit? dans le pays quand la d?faite en guerre ?tait pr?vue. Les forces marines qui ne voulaient pas faire la guerre contre les Anglais ?ils croyaient que ?a serait une suicide-, les dockers et lorganisation arm?e, les ?freikorps? s?taient r?volt?s. Friedrich Ebert qui contr?lait le gouvernement allemand ? cette ?poque voulait fonder une monarchie constitutionnelle. Quand les rebelles sont venus devant le palais du gouvernement ? Berlin, lami dEbert, Schiedman a d?clar? par accident La R?publique Allemande. Une coalition form?e de quatre partis (SPD, USPD, Zentrum, DVP) de gauche et de droite a commenc? alors ? gouverner. B) Le Trait? de VersaillesLe trait? de Versailles ?tait lacceptation de la d?faite par les Pays dEntente dans la 1?re Guerre Mondiale. LAllemagne consid?r? comme d?buteur de la guerre avec ce trait?, a perdu 13% de sa territoire et 10% de sa population. La r?gion dAlsace Loraine conqu?rite en 1871 est rendu en France. Une partie de la Prusse est donn?e ? Pologne. Ce qui ?tait le plus grave, cest que lAllemagne devait payer 132 milliards de mark de d?domagement de guerre. De cette raison, une partie de la territoire Autrichienne qui appartenait en Allemagne est adopt? par la France en tant que d?domagement. Le trait? de Versailles a caus? des grands probl?mes politiques internes en Allemagne. C) La R?publique et La ConstitutionLa r?publique ?tait fond?e et une coalition gouvernait le pays depuis le d?but de 1919. En Ao?t 1919, une assembl?e constituante sest r?unie ?Weimar (le nom de la r?publique vient de cette ville). Un mois apr?s le Trait? de Versailles, la constitution allemande est accept?e. C?tait une constitution qui ?tait tr?s d?mocratique pour son ?poque. Tous les citoyens homme ou femme avaient le droit de vote ? partir de vingt ans. La repr?sentation proportionnelle ?tait pr?vue comme mode de scrutin aux ?lections l?gislatives. Les droits et les libert?s de lhomme et de citoyen ?taient garantis par lEtat F?d?rale. Les etats f?d?r?s sont rendus plus attach?s au centre. Le Pr?sident de la R?publique ?tait ?quipp? des comp?tences comme la d?signation du chancelier. Le droit reconnu le plus important est le referendum. Le peuple pouvait vouloir voter une loi et m?me pouvait laccepter malgr? le Reichstag (le parlement). La constitution de Weimar ?tait un exemple tr ?s d?mocratique et avanc? pour son ?poque. II- Le Parti Nazi et Son Progr?s ParlementaireA) Lorigine, la fondation et lorganisation du partiLorigine du Parti Nazi est la soci?t? Thul? qui ?tait un groupe de pens?e fond? par un ouvrier de chemin de fer Anton Drexler et son ami Rudolf Sebottendorf (Ao?t 1918). DAP (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) est d?riv? de cette soci?t? en 1919 avec la participation du Karl Hasser. Adolf Hitler y participe en 1919 comme chef de propagande. Il ?tait un tr?s bon orateur. C?tait un parti antis?mitiste, anticomuniste, nationaliste et militant. Il d?fendait la sup?riorit? de la race Arienne. En F?vrier 1920, DAP devient NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) avec un programme ? 25 articles. Le but du parti ?tait de modifier totalement les bases ?conomiques, sociales, culturelles et politiques du Reich. Lunification des minorit?s allemandes, xenophobie et lid?e de lexpulsion des juifs sont fortement exprim?es. On d?clarait aussi dans le programme les principes dune nouvelle organisatio n ?conomique et sociale sans classes et des ambitions totalitaires comme le contr?le de la presse et de l?ducation. Les membres du parti sont plut?t de la classe moyenne. Les petits bourgeois, les paysans, les artisans et les commer?ants forment la majorit? des adh?rants. Le groupe qui est sous pr?sent? est les ouvriers car le socialisme et le communisme qui sont forts ? l?poque mod?raient la participation des ouvriers. Le support du parti vient plut?t de la r?action contre Weimar et le Trait? de Versailles. L?conomie lib?rale qui force les gens et linexistence de la garantie de lemploi servaient au Parti Nazi. Les ch?meurs supportaient bien le parti et participaient aux SA (Sturmabteilungen:les troupes de protection). Les jeunes mieux influenc?s avec la propagande, aventuriers, se sentaient comme une partie dune communaut? et devenaient membre du parti. La propagande ?tait la plus importante arme du parti. Lutilisation de la presse, les r?unions, les films de propagande et les SA uniform?s formaient les principaux moyens de propagande. NSDAP sorganisait sur le plan national dans chaque circonscri ption, presque quartier par quartier (Gau) avec un leader (Gauleiter) ? la t?te. Il cherchait sa client?le dans toutes les couches sociales. Les membres sont d?pass?s de 176.000 en 1929 ? 4 millions en 1933. Fibonacci EssayC) Janvier 1933: Le Chancelier HitlerAvec le support de Schleiher, Von Papen et le fils du Pr?sident de la R?publique, Oskar Von Hindenburg, Hitler devient le chancelier dune coalition de DVNP, Zentrum, et NSDAP. Les autres associ?s de la coalition voulaient manipuler les nazis et croyaient quen limitant leurs comp?tences, il serait possible de les contr?ler. Pour cette raison, on na donn? que trois minist?res pas si importants comme celui des affaires int?rieurs. D) La Naissance de la Troisi?me Reich: Tous Les Pouvoirs ? HitlerApr?s ?tre devenu le Chancelier, Hitler d?clare les nouvelles ?lections qui seront r?alis?es au 5 Mars 1933 avec un d?cret-loi. Ce d?cret est suivi par un autre qui autorise au gouvernement dintervenir aux manifestations et de pouvoir censurer la presse si la s?curit? du Reich est menac?e. Dailleurs, ces d?crets sont largement utilis?s par les nazis pour enlever lopposition (surtout les communistes) et les opposants sont mobilis?s de leurs postes. Au 22 F?vrier 1933, la complice dHitler, Goering fonde les troupes de SS (Schutz Staffel) en Prusse comme service de police. Les SA et les SS combattent alors ensemble contre les opposants. Au 27 F?vrier, un communiste dutch Van der Lubbe met lincendie au Reichstag. Les nazis profitent de cet evenement pour arr?ter tous les communistes. Un nouvel d?cret enl?ve tous les libert?s et r?gles instaur?es par la constitution de Weimar et on lapplique strictement. Une grande somme de gens sont arr?t?s par Goering et les SS et KPD (Komunist Partei Deutschland) est devenu ill?gal. Au 5 Mars 1933, le Parti Nazi devient le premier parti avec 43,9% des voix. C?tait le cas o? lAllemagne a eu la premi?re fois un parti avec une si grande pourcentage de voix. NSDAP forme alors une coalition avec lassociation de DVNP et les voix totals tend 51,9%. En r?alit?, il nexistait pas un si grand support mais Hitler d?montrait les r?sultats comme une victoire. Les nazis ont alors commenc? ? obtenir le contr?le de tous les domaines politico-?conomiques: les institutions et offices etatiques, les banques, le commerce, la presse etc Les gouvernements des etats f?d?r?s aussi sont acqu?ris par NSDAP. Au 23 Mars, Hitler r?cup?re tous les pouvoirs executifs et l?gislatifs par laccord (forc? avec les menaces des SA et des SS) du parlement. 81 d?put?s de KPD sont tout de suite prisonn?s. On ferme dabord KPD puis SPD. Quelques uns se sont alli?s avec les nazis pour continuer ? exister. Le P arti Catholique Centrale (Zentrum) a men? une politique intelligente pour co-exister mais lopposition de lEglise Catholique contre le nazisme a caus? leur fin aussi. Au 14 Juillet, avec une loi dinterdiction de cr?ation des partis politiques, Letat de parti unique dHitler est fond?. Derni?rement, NSDAP prend le contr?le des syndicats et fonde DAF (Deutsche Arbeiter Front): le Front dOuvrier Allemand. CONCLUS?ONLe processus de la mont?e du nazisme au pouvoir pr?sent? ci-dessus nous donne un exemple de linstauration dun r?gime totalitaire. Si on examine bien les evenements v?cus dans ce processus, on peut bien d?duire les causes de cette mont?e du nazisme. Pourquoi Hitler? Premi?rement, la constitution de Weimar qui ?tait tr?s d?mocratique et souple pour son ?poque rendait facile les man?uvres politiques. Ensuite, le mode de scrutin pr?cis? dans la constitution ? repr?sentation proportionnelle ne permettait pas la cr?ation dun gouvernement stable. L?conomie instable perturb?e par les d?domagements de guerre et des crises ?conomiques causait un taux de ch?mage ?lev? et une grave instabilit? sociale.Derni?rement, les d?fauts des institutions qui ne sont jamais contr?l?es comme il faut et la manque dutilisation des initiatives des autres partis politiques ont bien servi ? NSDAP. Lair pessimiste qui couvrait une grande partie du peuple allemand ? cause de ces handicaps est tr?s bien ma nipul? (lutilisation de lespoir) par les nazis en utilisant tous les moyens de propagande. Avec cette propagande extr?me, on est arriv? ? faire int?rioriser une id?ologie totalitaire. Tous ces facteurs pr?sent?s descriptent bien la conjoncture qui peut mener un pays ? avoir un r?gime totalitaire. BibliographyLA MONT?E DU NAZ?SME EN ALLEMAGNE?NTRODUCT?ONA- Pr?sentation du sujetB- Annonce du probl?matique et du planI- La R?publique et La Constitution de WeimarA- La situation de lAllemagne apr?s la Premi?re Guerre MondialeB- Le Trait? de VersaillesC- La R?publique et la ConstitutionII- Le Parti Nazi et son Progr?s Parlementaire A- Lorigine, la fondation et lorganisation du partiB- 1920-1923: Les travaux dorganisation et le coup detat de MunichC- 1925: La r?organisation du partiD- Crise ?conomique de 1929 et les ?lections de 1930III-La Domination ?lectorale et La Route Vers Le DictatoriatA- La candidature dHitler pour la pr?sidenceB- Les ?lections de Juillet et Novembre 1932C- Janvier 1 933: Le Chancelier HitlerD- La naissance de la troisi?me Reich: Tous les pouvoirs ? ?F?hrer?CONCLUS?ON Pourquoi Hitler? B?BL?OGRAPH?EAy?oberry, Pierre, La Question Nazie, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1979Wahl, Alfred, LAllemagne de 1918 ? 1945, Armand Colin, Paris, 1993Freeman, Michael, Atlas of Nazi Germany, Longman, London, 1995Encyclopedie MourreAna Britannica
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